Triumph in Organic Farming in the Philippines: A Story of Mrs. Pino in Zamboanga Del Sur

Mrs. Pino is an active member of KASAMAKA which one of the few grassroots organizations in Mindanao campaigning Organic Farming in Zamboanga Del Sur. She is very grateful by her Organization because of the learning she acquired from theory to practice about organic farming. She explained the same with other farmers she also had tragic experienced in farming by using chemicals in cultivation to the extent her husband and children acquired illness. After this bad experienced she was very dishearten by the decreasing harvest, affecting family’s health and the income situation had become so hopeless.

But then again Mrs. Pino’s determination and interest in learning new method in farming resonates to a positive outcome in her life as a farmer. At first, she have doubtful in applying organic farming in her cultivation however after she joined one of the seminars and series of discussions about organic farming in Balongatin, Zamboanga Del Sur organized by CONZARRD and KASAMAKA her hesitation in organic farming was eventually die out by learning all those great inputs and demo. She begins applying organic farming with her ¼ hectares and she was surprised by the results, her cultivation costs were reduced, the soil’s fertility on my farm has improved and my income has increased.

After using organic farming for four years, Mrs. Pino already has 2 Hectares of land. While she is very active in her cultivation, she was also very consistent in gaining new information about organic farming with the help of her Organization. Because of this, she tried to develop vermi cast. She explained, they started from two (2) sacks and right now our construction is going because we are hoping, two months from now we are going to harvest 300 sacks of vermin cast with that result they could also give vermin cast to their interested neighbors. Aside from vermin cast, they also develop vegetable sources and waste of duck.

Through their consistent efforts and initiatives in organic farming, one of the government agencies in zamboanga del sur came to visit and saw the appealing model farm, with that, they decided to support by giving farm machineries and they also gave 12kgs of African night crawler which they added up to the reproduction. Last year, they also join in provincial competition as recommended by the municipal agriculturist on organic farm display and fortunately, they won the competition.

Aside from being an active member of KASAMAKA, she is also a president in commune irrigation system in their community which an add-on to her advocacy to encourage her constituents in organic farming. Recently, the government of zamboanga del sur turn over the rehabilitation dam which cost 7.5 million. The irrigation will help the 80 hectares in Dagohoy and Guipos zamboanga del sur.

The KASAMAKA and CONZARRD are committed to give seminar and training to all interested farmers in Zamboanga Del Sur. They continuously encourage farmers to apply organic farming as one of alternative mechanism to combat climate change instead of using chemical fertilizer that certainly harms the environment and people’s health.

She added, considering that there are farmers are always hesitant is using organic farming because of the meticulous processes and expensiveness but we want stress out instead of purc

hasing vermin cast or natural pest repellents, we could maximize other means such as African night crawler, foliar fertilizer, waste of animals or any organic manures made from locally available resources. Through this, it will reduce your expenditure in cultivation.

Recently, the average of last cropping was 120 sacks per hectare and 70kgs per sack. It really indicates positive outcome through the use of organic farming.

Moreover, aside from raw to production processes they also engage in income generating programs by marketing their products (e.g., rice, atsal, etc.).

Mrs. Pino’s story is one of the vivid manifestations of triumph experience to all farmers and climate advocate, believing that the organic farming is an alternative solution to attain sustainable development and response to the climate change.


A Summary on the Dimensions of Political Apathy and Political Participation

1.1 Some Determinants of Political Apathy

Political Apathy is a very widespread phenomenon in American Culture.

  • serious malfunctioning of democracy
  • Political theorists, favorable behavior rather than by broad cleavage, and is basically stable.

General Criterion:

(1) Political Involvement (2) knowledge (3) activity

If we accept the view that democratic ideal encourages political interest and participation then the question naturally arises: [MAIN QUESTION] what are these factors which bring about the absence of political interest and participation?


(1) Threatening consequences of political activity

(2) Futility of political Activity

(3) Absence of spurs to interest and participation


The democratic right of freedom of speech does not insure that people will feel free to express their political convictions publicly at all times. (a) Threat of governmental action will deter some. (b) Threat to interpersonal harmony, others will be blocked from talking or acting in behalf of their political beliefs out of fear of losing friends, alienating neighbors, endangering marriages; jeopardizing their positions in groups, (c) threats to occupational success: losing business, jeopardizing their jobs, endangering production in their plants; (d) threats of ego-deflation: facing community pressures, or exposing their feeling of self-esteem to threats.

These are consequences which many people are unwilling to face and to avoid these consequences, they impose a self-censorship on their political expression, participation, and even emotional involvement.


(a) Based on the sense of personal inadequacy

(b) Unmanageability of political forces

(c) The gap between ideal and reality

Many people may be deterred from political activity by the conviction that their efforts will be futile. An individual may feel that he/she us but one among so many; that the agents of political decisions- representatives, machines, “the government”, certain powerful anonymous forces- are unable or unwilling to heed his voice of follow his/her will; that the political reality is hopelessly remote from the ideal; or that the hopelessness of political victory makes any effort pointless.

It may be observed that these consequences of apathy derive from the particular nature of the social and political structures. The mass nature of the society, characterized by wide disparities of power, remotes the sense of personal insignificance; the centralization of government fosters a sense of remoteness from the key decision-making process; periodic election produce discontinuous exercise of power; the system of representation draws power from the citizen and grants it to the representative.

In other words, a political structure established with the aim of implementing democracy may unwittingly establish the conditions for political apathy.


It is also relevant to examine the question of apathy in the light of the absence of influences, stimuli, or appeals which might encourage participation.

Under this factor there are three underlying attributes coming from the respondent’s interview:

(a) The Subject Matter of Politics is often not psychologically compelling

Since the political institution deals with problems of the total society, involving subject of general interest and concern, it tends to have an abstract or impersonal quality. However, for many people, they still remain, dull, remote and uninspiring

(b) Absence of noninstrumental gratification

Some people might conceivably engage in political activity because they enjoyed it, even if the goals they sought were not attained. However, there are individual’s incentive to political activity is often dulled by the absence of direct and immediate satisfaction even if there is monetary rewards or prestige. And some people find their current activity much more directly gratifying than political activity.

(c) Political results meet few direct and urgent needs

Politics may be viewed as a moderately interesting spectacle, but one that is remote from the direct concerns of daily life, they voluntarily alienate herself/himself in politics. An example of this: the man who wants an apartment usually does not attempt to get one by lobbying for federal housing project; rather, he consults agents, newspapers or friends. Another is, woman who wants lower food prices ordinarily does not attempt to achieve it by joining citizen’s committee striving to apply pressure on congress; rather she goes blocks out of her way to shop at a super-market whose price are lower than those of the neighborhood grocer.

Further, governmental action is considered irrelevant to their lives. They do not conceive of the government as an agent which can solve their immediate and pressing problems.

(d) People often lack a personal thrust to action

Personal influence may be of great importance in determining political attitudes and behavior. The data suggest that interpersonal factor may operate in several different ways to promote apathy or discourage participation.

  • Interpersonal factors may operate in several ways to promote political apathy
  • the individual may receive no positive encouragement from others to participate.
  • the guilt feeling arising from individual’s inactivity may be assuaged by the observation that others in the community are also inactive.
  • an individual, ready for action, may be discouraged by the observation that the apathy of other people increases his/her political work.
  • the individual may be a member of a group in which political apathy is a positive group norm- group which would discourage political action.

Some people might consider it a social responsibility to participate politically may be reassured by the observation that most other people are apathetic.


In this article, they suggested several factors which is some cases contribute to political apathy. That these factors have some significance is clearly suggested by data, but their relative importance, their statistical distribution among various population sub groups, and their interrelationships must remain subject for more systematic research.

Favorable rather than broader cleavage: because they feel there is no need to do anything; they are contented with the social and political system (standard of living), have faith in their representatives, see no need for change.

Some people do not participate actively because of the incertitude of their political convictions; to tem politics may be confusing, complicate, and contradictory, other may be exhausted by the pressure of other activities to pay much attention to it and among others. These and other factors would have to be examined before an adequate understanding of the determinants of political apathy could be achieve.

Symptom of the malfunctioning of democracy: What can be done about it? This is obviously a crucial area for social research.

On the other hand,


Sense of political efficacy may be defined as the feeling that individual political action does have, or can have, an impact upon the political process. And it is the feeling that political and social change is possible, and that the individual citizen can play a part in bringing about this change.

Political Efficacy = Political Participation

It would be positively related to political participation based on the conducted study during 1952 election. The study clearly indicates that the higher one’s sense of political efficacy, the higher the level of his/ her participation. And these two variable is consistent throughout.

It also indicates in the study that there is reflection of educational indifferences [those respondents who attended college rank high on this scale compared with 15 per cent of those who have completed no more that grade schools.] and socio-economic status are also highly related to political efficacy. [Income and occupation]

Thus, the effect of differing levels of political efficacy is not as great for the more socially and politically advantaged citizenry as it is for the less socially and politically advantaged.


Morris Rosenberg

Angus Campbell

Gerald Gurin

Warren E. Miller


Marcos is no Hero.

This is the continuous clamor and protest of the various movements who are against to buried Former Dictator Ferdinand Marcos at Libingan ng mga Bayani. However today, the voting9-5 gives the Supreme Court go-signal for the internment of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. The High Tribunal allowed and qualified Former President Marcos based on the regulations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and he’s been part of the brave young soldier who fought during World War II. SC argued that Ferdinand Marcos was never convicted of any crime involving moral depravity and has not been dishonorably discharged from active military service. And also, there is no direct law that prohibited the burial of Ferdinand Marcos in the LNMB.

Granting without conceding the fact that he is a soldier, the Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan- MSU Marawi condemned the ruling of the High Court along with other collective moments. This is the greatest failure of the judicial system and Philippine History to honor the Fascist and Dictator who committed atrocities, the rampant extra judicial killings and tons Human Rights Violations, putting the Philippine into a great debt, and giving the first stain to the so called “Democracy”.

The shameful move to bury the former dictator at the Libingan ng mga Bayani is a huge slap in the face of thousands of Martial Law survivors and individual who killed and experience the abuses to the rule of Dictator.  It will be a great injustice to the countless victims of Human Rights violations who are still disappeared or are left in unmarked tombs.

Its a huge slap to the Philippine to buried the Dictator who robbed and stole the money of Filipinos to have ill-gotten wealth that until now Martial Law victims are still waiting for the reparation and this ruling will only demoralize and undermine existing laws such as Human Rights and Reparation Act of 2013 that provides the legal and moral grounds in granting the full and effective reparation to the martial law victims. This also put the Philippines into a great debt which according to Ibon Foundation, Filipinos taxpayers will be paying this debt until 2025, 39 years after Marcos was outed from office.

It also shameful to the historical revisionism committed by the Marcoses and their apologists who wanted to alter the History and denying Filipino to the true lessons of history where crimes and atrocities were committed by the head of the state.

The ruling of judicial system is another manifestation of social inequality and injustices that boil down to the class conflict that gives favor to the ruling elites in the expense of the toiling masses.

Now, the Philippines are in the midst of eventually vanishing the narrative of Martial Law in history and the symbolic actions of the masses during the time of People’s Power and much worrying the millennials are in coma and believing that Ferdinand Marcos is a true great hero.

In unison, with other collective movements in the Philippines in indignation against  the ruling of the high court, we will partake the petition for motion for reconsideration in Marcos Burial in Libingan ng mga Bayani; we demand to the authority for true justice to the victims and survivors of Dictatorship; we demand to respect the true history of the Philippines; we demand to the policymakers to create a bill in integrating the narrative of Martial Law in  secondary level and Higher Education in explaining to the Filipinos especially millennials why shouldn’t allow the loss of freedoms to happen again.; And we demand for faster reparation to the victims of martial law.

The 9-5 ruling, will not give justice to the victims and survivors of Martial Law instead, it will vanish the name of the true hero’s individuals who resisted and sacrifice for freedom.

Despite of the outrageous ruling of the SC, we the Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan MSU Marawi always remind young people: “If not us, then who? If not now, the when?

Marcos is No Hero.


FREE Baba Jan! A Call from the Youth of Mindanao

Equating activism to terrorism is a bigoted notion among the neo-fascist and authoritarian regimes in different points of the world to justify the use state powers especially the military and police force against the protesters just like what happened to Baba Jan and his 11 companions who have been imprisoned by the authority for being a political activist in Pakistan.

Baba Jan is a central leader of the left-wing Awami Workers Party – Gilgit Baltistan.  After the landslide incident in Attabad, Hunza that displaced more than 1, 000 villagers, Baba Jan organized the displaced people to lobby to the Pakistan Government for compensation and resettlement. He joined a mobilization to demand for the rights of the affected communities however some of the protesters were shoot to death. As they call for justice for the victims, Baba Jan was arrested, repeatedly tortured and accused as terrorist. Recently, he was sentenced by the Anti-terrorism Court to 40 years of imprisonment.

The petition of Awami Workers Party in Pakistan and the some human rights organization in the Pakistan and other international organizations and personalities for his release has been signed by Noam Chomsky, Tariq Ali, David Graeber and several others. Among the organizations who demand Justice for Baba Jan are International Socialist, Progressive Youth Front Lahore, National Trade Union Federation and others.

The case of Baba Jan and his fellow activists in Pakistan was similarly what happened during the Martial Law period in the Philippines where massive number of political activists were detained, harassed, sexually abused, tortured, and killed by the state.  This state violence has continued in the Philippines even after Martial Law. Doctor Gery Ortiga and Gloria Capitan, Juvy Capion and her sons were among the environmental activists who were killed in the past few years in the Philippines. In the campaign against drugs syndicate under the administration of President Duterte, the spate of extra judicial killings have gone up victimizing small time alleged drug addicts and pushers. What even more striking are the absence of due process in all these cases but also most of the victims are the young people.

Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan (LMK) [League of Alternative Youth]- a progressive youth organization based in Mindanao, Philippines- believes that in a civilized world, Human Rights must be valued and upheld by the all States at all times and that Baba Jan is just among the numbers of leaders of the oppressed and marginalized sectors in the society whose voices are suppressed. Instead, they are criminalized and persecuted.

In unison with comrades in Pakistan and around the world, the Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan demands for justice to all victims of human rights violation and for the release of Baba Jan and his 11 fellow activists.

Climate Walk: A Sobriety call for Climate Justice!



Climate change may well be humanity’s greatest challenge.  It is a crisis that must be rapidly addressed if catastrophe is to be averted. Already, the impacts are being felt by millions in the world’s most vulnerable states and marginalized sectors.

The Philippines has been identified as one of, if not the most, vulnerable countries to the impacts of climate change. The extent of the destruction caused by 2012 typhoon Pablo (Bopha) and 2011 typhoon Sendong (Washi) are directly and indirectly caused and worsened by logging and mining. The recent manifestation to this is the onslaught of El Niño that led to the human and food security conflict in Kidapawan, Cotabato Province between the local government and the local farmers demanding for food and aid. The farmers and fisher folks in Zamboanga Peninsula and Lanao Del Norte suffered the dry spell of El Nino as crops failed to produce while fish catch reduced dramatically. The decrease of water level in Lanao Lake and Pulangi River also disrupted the regular power generation of Agus-Pulangi Hydro-Power.

Among those aggravated by large-scale mining, logging, and coal-fired power plants include a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, increased morbidity and mortality incidences, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity, contamination of aquifers and water stress, displacement of communities and development aggression in ancestral domain lands.

In response to perpetrators of the ecological crisis, the Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan- Zamboanga Peninsula organized a Climate Walk: A Sobriety calls for Climate Justice from Begong Tigbao, Limas to Maragang Lake last July 15 and 16. The walk served as a local counterpart of the 92-KM Climate Walk organized by Coal Resistance Movement (CoRE) last July 19 to 25, 2015.

As part of the Campaign for Climate Justice and Sustainable Development, LMK Zampen celebrates the invaluable involvement and vital role of young people in demanding Climate Justice. The organization also stresses the enormous role of the youth to contest and understand the root causes of climate change. The imperative action needed to avert climate change should be based on grassroots-led solutions for the well-being of local communities. The youth understands that the only way to prevent climate change is to change the neo liberal agenda of the government, a corporate-based economy, which stops us from achieving sustainable development and just society.

“What we are facing now served as a great challenge and inspiration to every youth, the future defender of our country that we need to step up our efforts and exercise the power of a collective action to defy the crooked minds of our government”, said Renz Gahum, Secretary General of Alyansa ng Kabataang Mindanao Para sa Kapayapaan (AKMK), which LMK is a proud member of.

Liga ng Makabagong Kabataan Zampen, along with other organizations in Mindanao seeks for Climate Justice Now!  LMK Zampen Youth calls:  NO TO COAL POWER PLANTS! NO TO MINING! NO TO ILLEGAL LOGGING! Perpetrators of climate crisis must pay!

Kabataan! Lumaban! Manindigan Kumilos!


In the global scale, many have claimed that women had already achieved several level of victories to their struggle for determination, recognition equality, and development in the political, economic and socio-cultural dimensions.  Markedly, the proliferation of various international and local movements, civil society organizations, people’s organizations and individual who are forwarding women’s right and welfare and embracing this advocacy as their struggle are women’s realization and triumph at the present time. However in the distant view, the continuous recognition and women liberation around the world are divergent in most developing countries.

In Philippine context, we see the patriarchal domination embedded to the values and culture of the Filipino, it still defines and shapes the role of women in the family and society. The turmoil in most developing countries is that gender awareness become subtle and confine in the family and society because of various problems to take into consider and adhere such as poverty. This condition will continuously intensify the number of discrimination, biases, abuses, trafficking, and domestic violence among women.

Women constitute slightly more than half of the Philippines population. Their roles become more visible and significant in the family and society in general. Women perform both productive and reproductive roles. Presently, their contribution to the economic development of the Philippines is more than two third. As what Isabel Allende, a Chilean-American writer said “although women do two-thirds of the world labor they own less than one percent of the world’s asset”.  Many women today are now participating in the labor force in response on the so-called globalization. The increasing number of women in agriculture and domestic migration which result on the important role in keeping the Philippines’ economy afloat because of consistent in sending money to their families in the Philippines. And yet, the domestic workers’ significant contribution, remain least acknowledge as labor force for economic stability. Domestic works remains unrecognized as real work because of society’s notion on what constitute ‘work’ such that is something, is paid, and creates surplus value. There are most cases of maltreatment, illegal recruitment and human trafficking among domestic workers particularly women.  Additionally, the proliferation of young women in the service sector service where more than half or 68% are women and the majority (85%) are contractual, most of them are under minimum wage earners.

Women participation in decision making remains ambiguous. According to UNDP Report during 2005, women’s representation in legislatures in third world countries is only 15 percent. Way back time, most countries women are not recognize and legitimate to vote or to hold any governmental positions but this notion was gradually vanish when continuous persistent of Feminist movement in their determination of women’s participation was heightened around the world.  This provides an opportunity to the liberal democratic countries to response the call of women’s assertion.  But in most developing countries this still linger this traditional notion in the representation of women in political structure and process.  As a result, male domination in the government hinders the women’s participation.  Also only few women are elected to represent the women sector or get elected in the presidential candidacy because of gender biases of male leadership and there was not enough increase in the number of women participant in government activities especially in decision making process. There are still cultural-bound practices that limit the participation of women in decision making.

Another reason that hamper the participation of women in most  developing countries like in Burma, South Sudan and Philippines particularly in Mindanao was continuous armed conflict of the Moro people to the government in the Mindanao that brought thousands of lives, damages in the property and displacement of the civilian, where women and children are the most vulnerable civilian in the conflict to the extent that there are unrecorded cases of women recruitment in rebels group, harassment and killing.

However, the society does not see the women have crucial role in pacifying and mediating the conflict, for instance the involvement of Moro women in peace negotiation between the Moro Liberation Islamic Liberation (MILF) and Government of the Philippines (GPH). They are part of the monitoring body in the decommissioning of arms as part of the normalization.

On the other hand, the support and acceptance of western countries in the struggle of LGBT (Lesbian, Guys, Bisexual and Transsexual and Transgender) to their recognition are increasingly emancipated by the western people. However, in the Philippines and other developing countries, the notion concerning LGBT is not fully emancipated and recognized by the state, church and society. They are still victim of offshoot marginalization and discrimination among the dominant structure.

Despite of gender confinement and biases in most developing countries, there are persistent efforts and initiatives of the feminist movement and civil society organizations in involving community and grassroots in forwarding gender equality such as the global movement on ecofeminism as an alternative framework in solving the gender problem and climate crisis.

The struggle of Eve’s race has intensified due to the bounds set by the culture especially in Asia. This is the reason why women still fight for an identical stand in the society. The world may scream that it has already accepted that women can equal to men. But the truth is, the journey for equality is still a long way to go.

May these efforts will serve as guidepost to the community to become aware and empower, to gradually cease the discrimination and biases towards women and LGBT; and to have a framework in forwarding Gender equality and Political Participation.

The other State of the Nation Address: The Multisectoral opinions

Last June 28 President Benigno III Aquino delivered his 5th State of the Nation Address (SONA).

The SONA was annually presented by the President discussing the rhetoric reform, recent developments, projects, plans and etc. And this is a moment to regain the trust of his “boss” (the people) after declining the public trust shown by Pulse survey.

Since he was elected as President of the Republic of the Philippines I’ve always been subjected and hesitant to his administration even though it has indeed put forward some remarkable changes in the bureaucracy; I believed that it wasn’t felt by the majority poor Filipinos but even worsen the marginalization and oppression. We all know during the Presidential candidacy way back 2010, he never announced that he would run as president, he never gave any sign but after his mother died it gave opportunity to his uncle to push him to run and it followed that every Filipinos want him to run. It was the 2010 landslide victory that gave opportunity to ruling elites to preserve and maintain their power in the political system.

The Philippine engagement in the international level was one of his top priorities; government will be able to borrow funds for program and projects at lower interest rates. It assumed to open more businesses and foreign investors will be attracted to the Philippine and Filipinos will be able to feel benefits. Another is the International Civil Aviation Organization lifted the significant safety concerns, this was followed by the European Union (EU) lifting ban on Philippine Airlines, allowing it to fly once again to Europe and US Federal Aviation Administration was also. It means the increase of local airlines to the US and Europe is design for tourism and business. PNoy also highlighted the successful of the Philippines to be host of World Economic Forum and was attended by US president Obama. Lastly, he was also proud to tell that our country will be hosting APEC next year.

However the remarkable developments was a correspond to the so called neo liberal policy, since the Philippines singed to be part in so called globalization, it is essential to open the sovereignty for exploitation and accumulation by the Multinational Corporations, transnational enterprises, and imperialist state and this would mean that Philippine will now invest in the Global market. Thus, the development and underdevelopment are thus two side of the same coin with the development of the industrialized countries is product of the underdevelopment of the poor countries. It imply that the Philippines remained dependent, on the already developed countries (US) and often victims of global forces (MNC’s, military intervention) which the Philippines is remained powerless, exploited and developing. The investment of the developing country like Philippine to the international organizations is designed and conditioned by the global forces. Additionally, the openness of the Philippines in the Globalization will undermine the domestic policy and resources that would threaten the natural resources and way of life of the Filipinos. PNOY had overwhelmingly glorify the positive response of the international community without considering the people’s welfare.

In the education, the k+12 is one of its agenda in his speech, contrary to this policy is the existing situation in the public schools the overlapping of the students because of no rooms, lack of facilities and teachers. Also, the abandonment of the public university and colleges because of the budget cut which lead to the commercialization and privatization. The aspiration of the youth to access tertiary is no longer right but a privilege those who haves and can afford high tuition fee. Their welfare and rights as human is no longer accessible in the status quo. Even CHED had approved the mandatory to increase the tuition fee in all levels of education; it only means that education is no longer free.

In the peace process in Mindanao, the fast track negotiation of the GPH and MILF lead to the signed of Comprehensive Agreement of the Bangsamoro (CAB) and earning positive economic indicators and with the overwhelming support of the international community. In the new documents there are changes in the wealth sharing which is alarming for the bangsamoro. For example the participation of other countries like Japan, US, and Europe, if I would try to analyze it the government are giving opportunity to the foreign countries to operate the MNC’s and monopolize the natural resources of bangsamoro area or in the Mindanao as a whole. Another is PNOY is using this peace talks to popularize his administration, we all know that every administration has own version in the peace process and make the Bangsamoro believe.

The struggle of the Indigenous people rights for inclusivity in the bangsamoro basic law (BBL) should be consider by the Aquino’s administration. However, no response coming from the administration.

The modernization of the Armed forces of the Philippines is one of his top priorities, purchasing weaponry, armaments and helicopter. That’s why there issues on budget cut in the education and other government agencies because of his aspiration (PNOY) to have caliber in the defense. Another is the Enhance Defense cooperation agreement (EDCA) it is a treaty of the Philippines to the Imperialist US to develop and equip the Filipino soldiers, in condition that US Force will establish their own base. This protocol is somewhat alarming in the national security of the Philippines because it will create tension to other neighboring countries like china.

In the agriculture, last June 30 is the end of CARPER, but until now there are numbers of peasants who haven’t received their land. This program should be modifying into more genuine land reform.

And never mentioned about Freedom of Information bill (FOI) (He is the author) that will ensure the integrity, transparency, and accountability of his administration. However, the Supreme Court was already declare that DAP is unconstitutional because of malversation of funds.

He talked about good governance, improvements, infrastructure, social service, calamity effort, international engagement, modernization, peace and order and rhetoric change. He always give his political evaluation on the huge differences of his administration comparing to past administrations, PNoy always insisted the blatant anomalies of the past administration (I’m talking about PGMA) without evaluating that his administration is doing the same.